Other Techniques

Beyond the techniques and applications discussed, microwave engineering has been used to create a variety of sensors, measurement devices, and systems for NDE purposes. Some examples include the use of coaxial cables for crack, strain, and displacement sensing; the use of wired patch antennas as sensors for parameters like dielectric properties, temperature, and strain; and hybrid measurement techniques that use embedded modulated scattering PIN diode-loaded dipole antennas for materials characterization and microwave imaging. The references below provide a spring board to learn more about the various microwave NDE applications and techniques.