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Ultrasonic Formula
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Longitudinal Wave Velocity
Shear Wave Velocity
Wavelength

Where:

 VL = Longitudinal Wave Velocity E = Modulus of Elasticity r = Density m = Poisson's Ratio

Longitudinal Wave Velocity Calculations

Where:

 Vs = Shear Wave Velocity E = Modulus of Elasticity r = Density m = Poisson's Ratio G = Shear Modulus

Shear Wave Velocity Calculations

Where:

 l = Wavelength V = Velocity F = Frequency

Wavelength Calculations

Refraction
(Snell's Law)

Acoustic Impedance
Reflection Coefficient

Where:

 qI = Angle of the Incident Wave qR = Angle of the Reflected Wave V1 = Velocity of Incident Wave V2 = Velocity of Reflected Wave

Refracted Angle Calculations

Where:

 Z = Acoustic Impedance r = Density V = Velocity

Acoustic Impedance Calculations

Where:

 R = Reflection Coefficient Z1 = Acoustic Impedance of Medium 1 Z2 = Acoustic Impedance of Medium 2

Reflection Coefficient Calculations

Near Field

Half Angle

Decibel (dB)
Gain or Loss

Where:

 N = Near Field D = Transducer Diameter l = Wavelength V = Velocity

Near Field Calculations
Near Field Calculator

Where:

 l = Wavelength D = Transducer Diameter V = Velocity F = Frequency