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Introduction to Ultrasonic Testing

Basic Principles
Present State
Future Direction

Physics of Ultrasound
Wave Propagation
Modes of Sound Waves
Properties of Plane Waves
Wavelength/Flaw Detection
Elastic Properties of Solids

Acoustic Impedance
Refraction & Snell's Law
Mode Conversion
Signal-to-noise Ratio
Wave Interference

Equipment & Transducers
Piezoelectric Transducers
Characteristics of PT
Radiated Fields
Transducer Beam Spread
Transducer Types
Transducer Testing I
Transducer Testing II
Transducer Modeling
Tone Burst Generators
Function Generators
Impedance Matching
Data Presentation
Error Analysis

Measurement Techniques
Normal Beam Inspection
Angle Beams I
Angle Beams II
Crack Tip Diffraction
Automated Scanning
Velocity Measurements
Measuring Attenuation
Spread Spectrum
Signal Processing
Flaw Reconstruction

Calibration Methods
Calibration Methods
DAC Curves
Curvature Correction
Thompson-Gray Model
Grain Noise Modeling

Selected Applications
Rail Inspection

Reference Material
UT Material Properties


Transducer Testing II

As noted in the ASTM E1065 Standard Guide for Evaluating Characteristics of Ultrasonic Transducers, the acoustic and electrical characteristics which can be described from the data, are obtained from specific procedures that are listed below:

Frequency Response--The frequency response may be obtained from one of two procedures: shock excitation and sinusoidal burst.

Relative Pulse-Echo Sensitivity--The relative pulse-echo sensitivity may be obtained from the frequency response data by using a sinusoidal burst procedure. The value is obtained from the relationship of the amplitude of the voltage applied to the transducer and the amplitude of the pulse-echo signal received from a specified target.

Time Response--The time response provides a means for describing the radio frequency (RF) response of the waveform. A shock excitation, pulse-echo procedure is used to obtain the response. The time or waveform responses are recorded from specific targets that are chosen for the type of transducer under evaluation, for example, immersion, contact straight beam, or contact angle beam.

Typical time and frequency domain plots provided
by transducer manufacturers

Frequency Response--The frequency response of the above transducer has a peak at 5 MHz and operates over a broad range of frequencies. Its bandwidth (4.1 to 6.15 MHz) is measured at the -6 dB points, or 70% of the peak frequency. The useable bandwidth of broadband transducers, especially in frequency analysis measurements, is often quoted at the -20 dB points. Transducer sensitivity and bandwidth (more of one means less of the other) are chosen based on inspection needs.

Complex Electrical Impedance--The complex electrical impedance may be obtained with commercial impedance measuring instrumentation, and these measurements may provide the magnitude and phase of the impedance of the search unit over the operating frequency range of the unit. These measurements are generally made under laboratory conditions with minimum cable lengths or external accessories and in accordance with specifications given by the instrument manufacturer. The value of the magnitude of the complex electrical impedance may also be obtained using values recorded from the sinusoidal burst.

Sound Field Measurements--The objective of these measurements is to establish parameters such as the on-axis and transverse sound beam profiles for immersion, and flat and curved transducers. These measurements are often achieved by scanning the sound field with a hydrophone transducer to map the sound field in three dimensional space. An alternative approach to sound field measurements is a measure of the transducer's radiating surface motion using laser interferometry.