Home - Education Resources - NDT Course Material - Ultrasound

Introduction to Ultrasonic Testing

Basic Principles
Present State
Future Direction

Physics of Ultrasound
Wave Propagation
Modes of Sound Waves
Properties of Plane Waves
Wavelength/Flaw Detection
Elastic Properties of Solids

Acoustic Impedance
Refraction & Snell's Law
Mode Conversion
Signal-to-noise Ratio
Wave Interference

Equipment & Transducers
Piezoelectric Transducers
Characteristics of PT
Radiated Fields
Transducer Beam Spread
Transducer Types
Transducer Testing I
Transducer Testing II
Transducer Modeling
Tone Burst Generators
Function Generators
Impedance Matching
Data Presentation
Error Analysis

Measurement Techniques
Normal Beam Inspection
Angle Beams I
Angle Beams II
Crack Tip Diffraction
Automated Scanning
Velocity Measurements
Measuring Attenuation
Spread Spectrum
Signal Processing
Flaw Reconstruction

Calibration Methods
Calibration Methods
DAC Curves
Curvature Correction
Thompson-Gray Model
Grain Noise Modeling

Selected Applications
Rail Inspection

Reference Material
UT Material Properties


Tone Burst Generators In Research

Tone burst generators are often used in high power ultrasonic applications. They take low-voltage signals and convert them into high-power pulse trains for the most power-demanding applications. Their purpose is to transmit bursts of acoustic energy into a test piece, receive the resulting signals, and then manipulate and analyze the received signals in various ways. High power radio frequency (RF) burst capability allows researchers to work with difficult, highly attenuative materials or inefficient transducers such as EMATs. A computer interface makes it possible for systems to make high speed complex measurements, such as those involving multiple frequencies.