Radiation is a form of energy. There are two basic types of radiation.
One kind is particulate radiation, which involves tiny fast-moving
particles that have both energy and mass. Particulate radiation
is primarily produced by disintegration of an unstable atom and includes
Alpha and Beta particles.
Alpha particles are high energy, large
subatomic structures of protons and neutrons. They
can travel only a short distance and are stopped by a piece
of paper or skin. Beta particles
are fast moving electrons. They are a fraction of the size of
alpha particles, but can travel farther and are more penetrating.
Particulate radiation is of secondary concern to industrial radiographers.
Since these particles have weight and are relatively large, they are easily absorbed by a small amount of shielding. However,
it should be noted that shielding materials, such as the depleted
uranium used in many gamma radiography cameras, will be a source
of Beta particles if the container should ever develop a leak. If a leak were to occur, the material could be transferred to the
hands and other parts of a radiographer’s body, causing what
is known as particulate contamination. This is the reason periodic
“leak” and “wipe tests” are performed
The second basic type of radiation is electromagnetic radiation.
This kind of radiation is pure energy with no mass and is like
vibrating or pulsating waves of electrical and magnetic energy.
Electromagnetic waves are produced by a vibrating electric charge
and as such, they consist of both an electric and a magnetic component.
In addition to acting like waves, electromagnetic radiation acts
like a stream of small "packets" of energy called photons. Another way that electromagnetic radiation has been described is in terms of a stream of photons. The massless photon particles each travel in a wave-like pattern. Each photon contains a certain amount (or bundle) of energy, and all electromagnetic radiation consists of these photons. The only difference between the various types of electromagnetic radiation is the amount of energy found in the photons.
Electromagnetic radiation travels in a straight line at the speed
of light (3 x 108 m/s).
Light waves, radio waves, microwaves, X-rays and Gamma rays are
some examples of electromagnetic radiation. These waves differ
in their wavelength as shown in the electromagnetic spectrum image above. Although all portions of the electromagnetic
spectrum are governed by the same laws, their different wavelengths
and different energies allow them to have different effects on
matter. Radio waves, for example, have such a long wavelength
and low energy that our eyes cannot detect them and they pass through
our bodies. It takes a special antenna and electronics to capture
and amplify radio waves.
The wavelength of visible light is on the order of 6,000 angstroms, while the wavelength of X-rays is
in the range of one angstrom and that of Gamma rays is 0.0001
angstrom. This very short wavelength is what gives X-rays and
Gamma rays their power to penetrate materials that light cannot.
Unlike light, X- and gamma rays cannot be seen, felt, or heard.
The fact that they cannot be detected with our normal human senses
and can damage our cells is why they must be treated