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Radiation Safety

Background Information
Gamma Radiation
Health Concerns

Radiation Theory
Nature of Radiation
Sources of High Energy

Rad for Ind Radiography
Decay and Half-life
Energy, Activity, Intensity   and Exposure
Interaction with Matter
Measures Related to   Biological Effects

Biological Effects
Biological Factors
Stochastic (Delayed) Effects
  -Genetic Effects

Nonstochastic (Acute) Effects

Safe Use of Radiation
NRC & Code of Federal
Exposure Limits
Controlling Exposure
  -Time-Dose Calculation
  -Distance-Intensity Calc
HVL Shielding
Safety Controls

Survey Techniques

Radiation Safety Equipment
Radiation Detectors
Survey Meters
Pocket Dosimeter
Audible Alarm Rate Meters
Film Badges

Video Clips



Safety Controls

Since X-ray and gamma radiation are not detectable by the human senses and the resulting damage to the body is not immediately apparent, a variety of safety controls are used to limit exposure. The two basic types of radiation safety controls used to provide a safe working environment are engineered and administrative controls. Engineered controls include shielding, interlocks, alarms, warning signals, and material containment. Administrative controls include postings, procedures, dosimetry, and training.

Engineered Controls
Engineered controls such as shielding and door interlocks are used to contain the radiation in a cabinet or a "radiation vault." Fixed shielding materials are commonly high density concrete and/or lead. Door interlocks are used to immediately cut the power to X-ray generating equipment if a door is accidentally opened when X-rays are being produced. Warning lights are used to alert workers and the public that radiation is being used.  Sensors and warning alarms are often used to signal that a predetermined amount of radiation is present. Safety controls should never be tampered with or bypassed.

When portable radiography is performed, it is most often not practical to place alarms or warning lights in the exposure area. Ropes and signs are used to block the entrance to radiation areas and to alert the public to the presence of radiation. Occasionally, radiographers will use battery operated flashing lights to alert the public to the presence of radiation. Portable or temporary shielding devices may be fabricated from materials or equipment located in the area of the inspection. Sheets of steel, steel beams, or other equipment may be used for temporary shielding. It is the responsibility of the radiographer to know and understand the absorption value of various materials. More information on absorption values and material properties can be found in the radiography section of this site.

Administrative Controls
As mentioned above, administrative controls supplement the engineered controls. These controls include postings, procedures, dosimetry, and training. It is commonly required that all areas containing X-ray producing equipment or radioactive materials have signs posted bearing the radiation symbol and a notice explaining the dangers of radiation. Normal operating procedures and emergency procedures must also be prepared and followed. In the US, federal law requires that any individual who is likely to receive more than 10% of any annual occupational dose limit be monitored for radiation exposure. This monitoring is accomplished with the use of dosimeters, which are discussed in the radiation safety equipment section of this material. Proper training with accompanying documentation is also a very important administrative control.