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Selection of Materials
Specific Metals
  Metal Ores
  Iron and Steel
  Aluminum/Aluminum Alloys
  Nickel and Nickel Alloys
  Titanium and Titanium Alloys

General Manufacturing Processes

Metallic Components
Ceramic and Glass Components
Polymers/Plastic Components

Manufacturing Defects

Service Induced Damage
Material Specifications

Component Design, Performance and NDE
Fracture Mechanics
Nondestructive Evaluation

Van der Waals Bond

The van der Waal bonds occur to some extent in all materials but are particularly important in plastics and polymers. These materials are made up of a long string molecules consisting of carbon atoms covalently bonded with other atoms, such as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine. The covalent bonds within the molecules are very strong and rupture only under extreme conditions. The bonds between the molecules that allow sliding and rupture to occur are called van der Waal forces.

When ionic and covalent bonds are present, there is some imbalance in the electrical charge of the molecule. Take water as an example. Research has determined the hydrogen atoms are bonded to the oxygen atoms at an angle of 104.5°. This angle produces a positive polarity at the hydrogen-rich end of the molecule and a negative polarity at the other end. A result of this charge imbalance is that water molecules are attracted to each other. This is the force that holds the molecules together in a drop of water.

This same concept can be carried on to plastics, except that as molecules become larger, the van der Waal forces between molecules also increases. For example, in polyethylene the molecules are composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms in the same ratio as ethylene gas. But there are more of each type of atom in the polyethylene molecules and as the number of atoms in a molecule increases, the matter passes from a gas to a liquid and finally to a solid.

Polymers are often classified as being either a thermoplastic or a thermosetting material. Thermoplastic materials can be easily remelted for forming or recycling and thermosetting material cannot be easily remelted. In thermoplastic materials consist of long chainlike molecules. Heat can be used to break the van der Waal forces between the molecules and change the form of the material from a solid to a liquid. By contrast, thermosetting materials have a three-dimensional network of covalent bonds. These bonds cannot be easily broken by heating and, therefore, can not be remelted and formed as easily as thermoplastics.