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Selection of Materials
Specific Metals
  Metal Ores
  Iron and Steel
  Aluminum/Aluminum Alloys
  Nickel and Nickel Alloys
  Titanium and Titanium Alloys

General Manufacturing Processes

Metallic Components
Ceramic and Glass Components
Polymers/Plastic Components

Manufacturing Defects

Service Induced Damage
Material Specifications

Component Design, Performance and NDE
Fracture Mechanics
Nondestructive Evaluation

Point Defects

Point defects are where an atom is missing or is in an irregular place in the lattice structure. Point defects include self interstitial atoms, interstitial impurity atoms, substitutional atoms and vacancies. A self interstitial atom is an extra atom that has crowded its way into an interstitial void in the crystal structure. Self interstitial atoms occur only in low concentrations in metals because they distort and highly stress the tightly packed lattice structure.

A substitutional impurity atom is an atom of a different type than the bulk atoms, which has replaced one of the bulk atoms in the lattice. Substitutional impurity atoms are usually close in size (within approximately 15%) to the bulk atom. An example of substitutional impurity atoms is the zinc atoms in brass. In brass, zinc atoms with a radius of 0.133 nm have replaced some of the copper atoms, which have a radius of 0.128 nm.

Interstitial impurity atoms are much smaller than the atoms in the bulk matrix. Interstitial impurity atoms fit into the open space between the bulk atoms of the lattice structure. An example of interstitial impurity atoms is the carbon atoms that are added to iron to make steel. Carbon atoms, with a radius of 0.071 nm, fit nicely in the open spaces between the larger (0.124 nm) iron atoms.

Vacancies are empty spaces where an atom should be, but is missing. They are common, especially at high temperatures when atoms are frequently and randomly change their positions leaving behind empty lattice sites. In most cases diffusion (mass transport by atomic motion) can only occur because of vacancies.