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Selection of Materials
Specific Metals
  Metal Ores
  Iron and Steel
  Aluminum/Aluminum Alloys
  Nickel and Nickel Alloys
  Titanium and Titanium Alloys

General Manufacturing Processes

Metallic Components
Ceramic and Glass Components
Polymers/Plastic Components

Manufacturing Defects

Service Induced Damage
Material Specifications

Component Design, Performance and NDE
Fracture Mechanics
Nondestructive Evaluation

Covalent Bonding

Where a compound only contains nonmetal atoms, a covalent bond is formed by atoms sharing two or more electrons. Nonmetals have 4 or more electrons in their outer shells (except boron). With this many electrons in the outer shell, it would require more energy to remove the electrons than would be gained by making new bonds. Therefore, both the atoms involved share a pair of electrons. Each atom gives one of its outer electrons to the electron pair, which then spends some time with each atom. Consequently, both atoms are held near each other since both atoms have a share in the electrons.

More than one electron pair can be formed with half of the electrons coming from one atom and the rest from the other atom. An important feature of this bond is that the electrons are tightly held and equally shared by the participating atoms. The atoms can be of the same element or different elements. In each molecule, the bonds between the atoms are strong but the bonds between molecules are usually weak. This makes many solid materials with covalent bonds brittle. Many ceramic materials have covalent bonds.

Compounds with covalent bonds may be solid, liquid or gas at room temperature depending on the number of atoms in the compound. The more atoms in each molecule, the higher a compound’s melting and boiling temperature will be. Since most covalent compounds contain only a few atoms and the forces between molecules are weak, most covalent compounds have low melting and boiling points. However, some, like carbon compounds, can be very large. An example is the diamond in which carbon atoms each share four electrons to form giant lattices.

Some Common Features of Materials with Covalent Bonds:

  • Low enthalpies of fusion and vaporization
  • Good insulators
  • Solids can be soft or brittle
  • If brittle often transparent and cleave rather than deform