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Selection of Materials
Specific Metals
  Metal Ores
  Iron and Steel
  Aluminum/Aluminum Alloys
  Nickel and Nickel Alloys
  Titanium and Titanium Alloys

General Manufacturing Processes

Metallic Components
Ceramic and Glass Components
Polymers/Plastic Components

Manufacturing Defects

Service Induced Damage
Material Specifications

Component Design, Performance and NDE
Fracture Mechanics
Nondestructive Evaluation


A polymeric solid can be thought of as a material that contains many chemically bonded parts or units which themselves are bonded together to form a solid. The word polymer literally means "many parts." Two industrially important polymeric materials are plastics and elastomers. Plastics are a large and varied group of synthetic materials which are processed by forming or molding into shape. Just as there are many types of metals such as aluminum and copper, there are many types of plastics, such as polyethylene and nylon. Elastomers or rubbers can be elastically deformed a large amount when a force is applied to them and can return to their original shape (or almost) when the force is released.

Polymers have many properties that make them attractive to use in certain conditions. Many polymers:

  • are less dense than metals or ceramics,
  • resist atmospheric and other forms of corrosion,
  • offer good compatibility with human tissue, or
  • exhibit excellent resistance to the conduction of electrical current.

The polymer plastics can be divided into two classes, thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics, depending on how they are structurally and chemically bonded. Thermoplastic polymers comprise the four most important commodity materials – polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride. There are also a number of specialized engineering polymers. The term ‘thermoplastic’ indicates that these materials melt on heating and may be processed by a variety of molding and extrusion techniques. Alternately, ‘thermosetting’ polymers can not be melted or remelted. Thermosetting polymers include alkyds, amino and phenolic resins, epoxies, polyurethanes, and unsaturated polyesters.

Rubber is a natural occurring polymer. However, most polymers are created by engineering the combination of hydrogen and carbon atoms and the arrangement of the chains they form. The polymer molecule is a long chain of covalent-bonded atoms and secondary bonds then hold groups of polymer chains together to form the polymeric material. Polymers are primarily produced from petroleum or natural gas raw products but the use of organic substances is growing. The super-material known as Kevlar is a man-made polymer. Kevlar is used in bullet-proof vests, strong/lightweight frames, and underwater cables that are 20 times stronger than steel.