Magnetic particle inspection predominately relies on visual inspection
to detect any indications that form. Therefore, lighting
is a very important element of the inspection process. Obviously,
the lighting requirements are different for an inspection conducted
using visible particles than they are for an inspection conducted
using fluorescent particles. The lighting requirements for each
of these techniques, as well as how light measurements are made,
is discussed below.
Light Requirements When Using Visible
Magnetic particle inspections that use visible particles
can be conducted using natural or artificial lighting.
When using natural lighting, it is important to keep in mind that
daylight varies from hour to hour. Inspector must constantly stay
aware of the lighting conditions and make adjustments when needed.
To improve the uniformity of lighting from one inspection to the next,
the use of artificial lighting is recommended. Artificial lighting
should be white whenever possible and white flood or halogen lamps
are most commonly used. The light intensity is required to be
100 foot-candles at the surface being inspected. It is advisable
to choose a white light wattage that will provide sufficient light,
but avoid excessive reflected light that could distract from the
Light Requirements When Using Fluorescent
When performing a magnetic particle inspection
using fluorescent particles, the condition of the ultraviolet
light and the ambient white light must be monitored. Standards
and procedures require verification of lens condition and light
intensity. Black lights should never be used with a cracked filter
as the output of white light and harmful black light will be increased.
The cleanliness of the filter should also be checked regularly since a coating
of solvent carrier, oil, or other foreign material can reduce
the intensity or light by as much as 50%. The filter should be checked
visually and cleaned as necessary before warming-up the light.
For UV lights used in component evaluations,
the normally accepted intensity is 1000mwatts/cm2 when measured at 15 inches from the filter face (requirements
can vary from 800 to 1200mwatts/cm2). The required check should be performed
when a new bulb is installed, at startup of the inspection cycle,
if a change in intensity is noticed, or every eight hours if in
continuous use. Regularly checking the intensity of UV lights
is very important because bulbs lose intensity over time.
In fact, a bulb that is near the end of its operating life will
often have an intensity of only 25% of its original output.
Black light intensity will also be affected by voltage variations,
so it is important to provide constant voltage to the light. A
bulb that produces acceptable intensity at 120 volts will produce
significantly less at 110 volts.
Ambient White Lighting
When performing a fluorescent magnetic particle inspection, it
is important to keep white light to a minimum as it will significantly
reduce the inspectors ability to detect fluorescent indications.
Light levels of less than 2fc are required by most procedures
and some procedures require it to be less than 0.5fc at the inspection
surface. Some specifications require that a white light intensity measurement be made at 15 inches from a UV light source
to verify that the white light is being removed by the filter.
White Light for Indication Confirmation
While white light is held to a minimum in fluorescent inspections,
procedures may require that indications be evaluated under white
light. The white light requirements for this evaluation are the same as when
performing an inspection with visible particles. The minimum light
intensity at the surface being inspected must be 100fc.
Light intensity measurements are made using
a radiometer. A radiometer is an instrument that translates light
energy into an electrical current. Light striking a silicon photodiode
detector causes a charge to build up between internal layers.
When an external circuit is
connected to the cell, an electrical current is produced. This
current is linear with respect to incident light. Some radiometers
have the ability to measure both white and UV light, while
others require a separate sensor for each measurement. The sensing area should always be kept clean and free of materials
that could reduce or obstruct light reaching the sensor.
Radiometers are relatively unstable instruments and readings
often change considerably over time. Therefore, they must be calibrated
regularly. They should be calibrated at least every six months.
A unit should be checked to make sure its calibration is current
before taking any light readings.
Ultraviolet light measurements should be taken using a fixture
to maintain a minimum distance of 15 inches from the filter face
to the sensor. The sensor should be centered in the light field
to obtain the peak reading. UV spot lights are often
focused which causes intensity readings to vary considerable over a small
area. White lights are seldom focused and, depending on the wattage,
will often produce in excess of the 100fc at 15 inches.