current probes are available in a large variety of shapes and sizes.
In fact, one of the major advantages of eddy current inspection
is that probes can be custom designed for a wide variety of applications.
Eddy current probes are classified by the configuration and mode
of operation of the test coils. The configuration of the probe
generally refers to the way the coil or coils are packaged to
best "couple" to the test area of interest. An example
of different configurations of probes would be bobbin probes,
which are inserted into a piece of pipe to inspect from the inside out, versus encircling probes, in which the coil or coils encircle
the pipe to inspect from the outside in. The mode of operation
refers to the way the coil or coils are wired and interface with
the test equipment. The mode of operation of a probe generally
falls into one of four categories: absolute, differential, reflection
and hybrid. Each of these classifications will be discussed in
more detail below.
probes generally have a single test coil that is used to generate
the eddy currents and sense changes in the eddy current field.
As discussed in the physics section, AC is passed through the
coil and this sets up an expanding and collapsing magnetic field
in and around the coil. When the probe is positioned next to a
conductive material, the changing magnetic field generates eddy
currents within the material. The generation of the eddy currents
take energy from the coil and this appears as an increase in the
electrical resistance of the coil. The eddy currents generate
their own magnetic field that opposes the magnetic field of the
coil and this changes the inductive reactance of the coil. By
measuring the absolute change in impedance of the test coil, much
information can be gained about the test material.
Absolute coils can be used for flaw detection, conductivity measurements,
liftoff measurements and thickness measurements. They are widely
used due to their versatility. Since absolute probes are sensitive
to things such as conductivity, permeability liftoff and temperature,
steps must be taken to minimize these variables when they are
not important to the inspection being performed. It is very common
for commercially available absolute probes to have a fixed "air
loaded" reference coil that compensates for ambient temperature
Differential probes have two active coils usually wound
in opposition, although they could be wound in addition with similar
results. When the two coils are over a flaw-free area of test
sample, there is no differential signal developed between the
coils since they are both inspecting identical material. However,
when one coil is over a defect and the other is over good material,
a differential signal is produced. They have the advantage of
being very sensitive to defects yet relatively insensitive to slowly
varying properties such as gradual dimensional or temperature
variations. Probe wobble signals are also reduced with this probe
type. There are also disadvantages to using differential probes.
Most notably, the signals may be difficult to interpret. For example,
if a flaw is longer than the spacing between the two coils, only
the leading and trailing edges will be detected due to signal
cancellation when both coils sense the flaw equally.
Reflection probes have two coils similar to a differential
probe, but one coil is used to excite the eddy currents and the
other is used to sense changes in the test material. Probes of
this arrangement are often referred to as driver/pickup probes.
The advantage of reflection probes is that the driver and pickup coils
can be separately optimized for their intended purpose. The driver
coil can be made so as to produce a strong and uniform flux field
in the vicinity of the pickup coil, while the pickup coil can
be made very small so that it will be sensitive to very small
Some absolute and differential "transformer"
type eddy current probes.
The through-transmission method is sometimes used
when complete penetration of plates and tube walls is required.
example of a hybrid probe is the split D, differential probe shown
to the right. This probe has a driver coil that surrounds two
D shaped sensing coils. It operates in the reflection mode but
additionally, its sensing coils operate in the differential mode.
This type of probe is very sensitive to surface cracks. Another
example of a hybrid probe is one that uses a conventional coil
to generate eddy currents in the material but then uses a different
type of sensor to detect changes on the surface and within the
test material. An example of a hybrid probe is one that uses a
Hall effect sensor to detect changes in the magnetic flux leaking
from the test surface. Hybrid probes are usually specially designed
for a specific inspection application.