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Eddy Current Testing

Basic Principles
History of ET
Present State of ET

The Physics
Properties of Electricity
Current Flow & Ohm's Law
Induction & Inductance
Self Inductance
Mutual Inductance
Circuits & Phase
Depth & Current Density
Phase Lag

Eddy Current Instruments
Resonant Circuits
Impedance Plane
Display - Analog Meter

Probes (Coils)
Probes - Mode of Operation
Probes - Configuration
Probes - Shielding
Coil Design
Impedance Matching

Procedures Issues
Reference Standards
Signal Filtering

Surface Breaking Cracks
SBC using Sliding Probes
Tube Inspection
Heat Treat Verification
Thickness of Thin Mat'ls
Thickness of Coatings

Advanced Techniques
Multi-Frequency Tech.
Swept Frequency Tech.
Pulsed ET Tech.
Background Pulsed ET

Remote Field Tech.


Formulae& Tables
EC Standards & Methods
EC Material Properties

History of Eddy Current Testing

Eddy current testing has its origins with Michael Faraday's discovery of electromagnetic induction in 1831. Faraday was a chemist in England during the early 1800's and is credited with the discovery of electromagnetic induction, electromagnetic rotations, the magneto-optical effect, diamagnetism, and other phenomena. In 1879, another scientist named Hughes recorded changes in the properties of a coil when placed in contact with metals of different conductivity and permeability. However, it was not until the Second World War that these effects were put to practical use for testing materials. Much work was done in the 1950's and 60's, particularly in the aircraft and nuclear industries. Eddy current testing is now a widely used and well-understood inspection technique.