In high-technology manufacturing, part design and simulation
of part inspection is done in the virtual world of the computer.
Transducer modeling is necessary to make accurate predictions
of how a part or component might be inspected, prior to the actual
building of that part. Computer modeling is also used to design
As noted in the previous section, an ultrasonic transducer may
be characterized by detailed measurements of its electrical and
sound radiation properties. Such measurements can completely determine
the response of any one individual transducer.
There is ongoing research to develop general models that relate
electrical inputs (voltage, current) to mechanical outputs (force,
velocity) and vice-versa. These models can be very robust in giving
accurate prediction of transducer response, but suffer from a lack
of accurate modeling of physical variables inherent in transducer
manufacturing. These electrical-mechanical response models must
take into account the physical and electrical components in the figure
The Thompson-Gray Measurement Model, which makes very accurate
predictions of ultrasonic scattering measurements made through
liquid-solid interfaces, does not attempt to model transducer
electrical-mechanical response. The Thompson-Gray Measurement
Model approach makes use of reference data taken with the same
transducer(s) to deconvolve electro-physical characteristics
specific to individual transducers. See Section
5.4 Thompson-Gray Measurement Model.
The long term goal in ultrasonic modeling is to incorporate accurate
models of the transducers themselves as well as accurate models
of pulser-receivers, cables, and other components that completely
describe any given inspection setup and allow the accurate prediction
of inspection signals.